Author's and Artwork Guidelines

The Ocean Yearbook is an annual publication of the International Ocean Institute and Schulich School of Law, Dalhousie University, published in cooperation with Brill Nijhoff Publishers since 2006 (Volume 20–) and the University of Chicago Press from 1978 to 2005 (Volumes 1–19).

Authors receive a free copy of the volume in which their paper is published. There is no financial remuneration paid for submissions to the Ocean Yearbook. Publication is reserved for submissions accepted by the Editors and following an anonymous peer review process. Brill Nijhoff is the publisher of the Ocean Yearbook, and holds copyright of any published article. Authors are required to sign and submit copyright publication agreements upon acceptance of manuscripts. Authors are responsible for securing in advance of submission any copyright clearances necessary for the publication of their work. Authors whose work is accepted are requested to submit a one paragraph biographical note (100 words max.) for the contributors' section.

EDITORS: Scott Coffen-Smout, Patrícia Galvão Ferreira, Moira L. McConnell and Sara L Seck 

Scott Coffen-Smout, Co-Editor 
Ocean Yearbook Editorial Office
c/o Marine & Environmental Law Institute Schulich School of Law
6061 University Avenue
PO Box 15000
Halifax, Nova Scotia

tel: 1-902-494-1988
fax: 1-902-494-1316

Format & Citiation Instructions for Authors

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS: Manuscripts should be submitted in MS-Word either by e-mail. Manuscripts must be typed in Times New Roman 11 pt., double-spaced (text, footnotes, legends, etc.), with right- and left-hand margins of at least 1.5 inches [4 cm] each. Any unusual symbols or abbreviations in text or tables should be identified in the margin (in pencil). Tables, charts and artwork should be kept to a minimum and should be integrated with the text. Please use American English spelling and the Chicago Manual of Style. Insert page numbers in the manuscript using right alignment at the bottom of the page.

TITLES: Manuscript titles should be in bold Titlecaps

Example: “Challenges in Implementation of the Jakarta Mandate for Marine Biological Diversity

AUTHORS & AFFILIATIONS: All co-authors should be listed under the manuscript title, with all author/co-author affiliations given in Italics.


Hans-Jürgen Riesenmann
Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany

NOTES OF ACKNOWLEDGMENT: These appear as a note on the bottom first page of the published article preceding the numbered footnotes and they are usually asterisked (*) at the author(s) name. These notes are intended to acknowledge a grant from an institution or foundation, to thank referees or colleagues, and to indicate conferences where earlier versions of the manuscript were presented, etc. It is not usual to acknowledge Ocean Yearbook Editors or Editorial Assistants in the acknowledgement note.

SUBHEADS: Subheadings are not numbered in the manuscript, but major sections of long papers can be divided into parts, e.g., Part I, Part II, etc. Major sections of long papers should NOT be labeled with subheadings such as "Chapter 2" or "Section 3". Only the first paragraph following a subhead is not indented; all subsequent paragraphs are indented.

There should be no more than three levels of boldface subheadings as follows:

2nd Level: Case Study
3rd Level: Assessment and Analysis

Thus, only UPPER CASE, Titlecaps and Italics will distinguish the different levels of subheads from one another.

Ocean Yearbook articles DO NOT have Abstracts in the printed volume; however, Abstracts & Keywords are required for the online version of the article for Scopus indexing. The scope/format of the article may be described in the introductory paragraphs and a summary of key points and themes should be in the conclusion.

MATHEMATICAL EQUATIONS: An equation should be typed on a line by itself in the text with 1 line space above and below. Equation numbers should be at the right-hand side of the equation and should be in parentheses.

TABLES: If it is necessary to include tables, each table should be on a separate sheet of paper at the end of the manuscript. Each table should be numbered and should be referred to in order in the text. Table insertion points should be clearly marked between the appropriate paragraphs in the text, e.g., [Insert Table 4 here]. Tables should include full sources for citations. All abbreviations used in the tables must be explained in full in the legend.

ANNEXES: Numbered annexes containing information directly relevant to the subject of the manuscript may be placed after the main body of the article. However, authors should endeavor to make manuscripts as self-contained as possible. Hence, annexes should only be used when the annexed material is too large to be either footnoted or integrated within the main body of the text.

ARTWORK: Style guidelines on artwork graphics are appended at the end of this document.


Footnote Placement in the Text

All in-text footnote references should be superscripted numbers at the end of a sentence or after any punctuation.

Example: Although marine science has provided much ecosystem-based knowledge for oceans management,4 more scientific research is needed to meet existing and future demands arising from implementation of the Oceans Act.5

DO NOT use Endnotes, Reference lists, or Bibliographies.

Content of Notes

The text of footnotes should appear at the bottom of the page in Times New Roman 10 pt font and be inserted using the proper Insert Footnote command in Word or WordPerfect. There should be no paragraph breaks in a footnote; all information should be contained in one paragraph. When strings of works are cited, semicolons (;) should separate them between different authors and commas should separate works by the same author. Provide the names of all authors of a work the first time they are cited with their initials and surname, e.g., J. A. Smith, F. V. Parizeau and M. S. Hudson.

Footnote Consolidation

Whenever possible, footnotes should be consolidated. For example, if several authors are mentioned in one sentence and each author is assigned a separate footnote, the individual footnotes should be deleted and replaced by a single consolidated footnote at the end of the sentence, containing the citations for each author.

Sequencing and References to Earlier Footnotes

Each referenced citation has a footnote number that appears in sequential order in the text. If the information in an earlier footnote needs to be cited in a later footnote, the later footnote is given its appropriate sequential number and the text of that footnote should refer to the earlier footnote.

Example: if the information in note 1 also pertains to a later section of text, that section is assigned a footnote the body of which would read, “See n. 1 above.” DO NOT use "op cit".

The first citation of a work in the footnotes should contain all pertinent information, even if part of it appears in the text, e.g., if the author mentions the name of the work in the text, it must be repeated in the footnote.

Multiple Authors

If there are more than two authors, use “Author #1 et al.” in subsequent citations.

Second and Subsequent Footnotes

If only one work by that author has been cited:

               Hildebrand, see n. _ above, pp. 27–30. [Use en dash(–), not hyphen(-), to separate page                       numbers.]

If reference immediately follows the first footnote:

Id., p. 12.              [If pages are the same, then just use “Id.” with no page number.]

If an author cites two works by the same author but is actually the author of only one and the editor of the other, it is not necessary to repeat the title of the works in subsequent citations:

               Williamson, pp. 35–40.

               Williamson, ed., pp. 10–12.

If a citation title is very long and/or used a lot, it is possible to use a shortened book title by saying (in the first citation) that a shortened title will be used: (e.g., hereafter cited as “Short Title”) in Italics.

Internet Citations

When citing Internet web sites, include the uniform resource locator (URL) in < > brackets.

Example: Guidelines for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water to Minimize the Transfer of Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens, Resolution A.868(20), adopted on 27 November 1997, available online: <>.

Personal Communications

When citing personal communications in footnotes, include the individual's name, position and organization, "pers. comm." and the date of the communication.

Example: Jan von Wolkenstein, Professor, Erasmus University, pers. comm. (25 May 2002).

Volume Numbers
In citing journals, volume no. goes before date; in citing books, volume no. goes after publisher and date.

Footnote Formats for Journal Articles

It is extremely important to have full references in footnotes, as indicated by the following examples.

Journals with volume number and page numbers:

              Author, “Title of article,” Journal Title 65 (May 1988): 35–49.

              Author, “Title of article,” Journal Title 20, no. 1 (1992): 113–124.

With volume number only:

              Author, “Title of article,” Journal Title, vol. 6 (1968).

With no volume number:

              Author, “Title of article,” Journal Title (May 1988).

              Author, “Title of article,” Journal Title (1988), p. 3.

When indicating inclusive page numbers and a quote:

              Author, “Title of article,” Journal Title (May 1988): 182–95, quote on [or “at”] 188.

Journal Supplement Series:

               R. M. Williamson, “Supertankers,” in Proceedings of the Royal Navigation Society, suppl. ser.,                 58 (1994): 1–16.

Special Issue of a Journal:

               Author, “Article Title,” Journal Title (“Special Issue Title,” ed. Special Eds. Name) 4, no. 3 (Fall                 1990).

The Whole Issue:

               Special Issue Ed(s)., “Special Issue: Title of Special Issue,” Journal Title, vol. 4, no. 3 (Fall                       1990).

Two-part Articles:

               Author, “Overall Title. II. Title,” Journal Title 12 (June 1992): 129–140.
               Author, “Shipping Routes. I. Trends,” and “Shipping Routes. II. Commodity                Summaries,” Maritime Reviews 7, no. 2 (1987): 6–19; 7, no. 3 (1988): 14–31.

Two articles in the same issue:

               Author 1, “Title of article,” and Author 2, “Title of article,” Journal Titlevol. no. (May 1988):                264–287, 288–306.


Citations for books include the following items in the order they are normally given:

               Author's or Authors’ full name in order of J. A. Smith, etc.
               Complete title of book in Italics
               Editor, compiler, or translator, if any
               Edition, if not the original
               Series, if any, and volume or number in the series
               Number of volumes
               Facts of publication – city where published, publisher, year of publication
               Volume number, if any
               Page number(s) of the particular citation

Example of most basic book citation:

               Author, Title: subtitle (City: Publisher, 1988).

Multi-volume works:

               Author, Title, 2d ed., 3 vols. (City: Publisher, 1988), 2: 36.
               Author, Overall Title, vol. 3, Volume title (City: Publisher, 1979), p. 36.

When a volume, part number, and pages are given:

               Author, Title (City: Publisher, 1998), 6, pt. 3:6–9.

If citing a whole volume:

               Author, Title (City: Publisher, 1996), vol. 3.

Books in a Series:

               Author, Title, Series Name no. 44 (City: Publisher, 1993), pp. 456–59.
               Author, Title, Series Title vol. 30, pt. 1 (City: Publisher, 1979), p. 9.

Edited Volumes:

               Author, ed., Title (City: Published, 1989).

Citing one chapter in an edited volume:

                Author, “Chapter title,” in Title, ed. J. Doe (City: Publisher, 1988), chap. 12.


               Author, Title, trans. J. Doe (City: Publisher, 1982), pp. 56 ff.

A citation of an English translation of a work in a foreign language should not include the original edition unless the full citation of the latter is also given.

Example: J. Derrida, Writing and Difference, trans. A. Bass (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978), originally published as L’écriture et la différence (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1967).

Citing one Chapter in a book

In an edited volume:

                Author, “Chapter title,” in Title, ed. E. Jones and A. Smith (City: Publisher, 1978), pp. 28–53.

In a book by one author:

               Author, “Chapter title,” in [his/her] Title, (City: Publisher, 1978), pp. 28–53.

Unpublished Sources

For articles not yet published, use “(in press)” at the end of the citation. Also include the year to be published if known.

With year:

               Author, Title (City: Publisher, 2002), (in press).

With no year:

               Author, Title (City: Publisher, in press).

When indicating inclusive page numbers and a quote:

               Author, Title (City: Publisher, 1978), pp. 37–92, quote on [on “at”] p. 85.


               Author, “Title,” New York Times (May 7, 2002).

Unpublished Papers

               Author, “Title” (paper presented at the Conference Name, City, full date).


               Author, “Dissertation title” (Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1987), p. 14.

For dissertations where abstracts have been published in the Dissertation Abstracts International:

                Author, “Title” (Ph.D. diss., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1975), Dissertation                 Abstracts International 34 (1975): 2350B (University Microfilms no. 73-26, 481).

Discussion and Working Papers

Author, “Title,” Working (Discussion) Paper no. 6 (University of Chicago, Department of                Economics, Chicago, 1981).


               Author, “Title” (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1976, mimeographed), p. 24.

Government Reports

                Author, Title, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Report no. 689-B (Washington, D.C.:                 Government Printing Office, 1963), p. 65.

Citations of Footnotes

                Author, “Title,” Journal Title 5 (July 1988): 12, n. 6. [If the footnote cited has a number.]

                Author, “Title,” Journal Title 5 (July 1988): 12n. [If the footnote cited has no number.]

Citations in Table Notes and Figure Legends

Give complete citation source information the first time it appears in any of these places, regardless of whether it has been cited earlier.


When citing a figure, map, or table taken from another source, the authors should provide the copyright line from that source. Note that the author is responsible to get permission to reprint from the copyright holder.

Legal Citation Rules

Internal Citation:

Citation to a specific part of a work should correspond to the internal ordering system the work uses. Indicate the precise location of the supporting statements within the authority, using the page number (no symbol), section ( ) number, paragraph ( ) number, chapter (ch.) number, or note (n.) number, or any combination of these.

Authors’ and Editors’ Names:

Use first and last names for initial citations, only last for subsequent citations. For student-written works in law journals, the author’s name is replaced by the designation used in the journal: “Note,” Comment,” “Case Note.”


Reported Cases:

Use the following form with the indicted punctuation:

{case name}{volume number}{reporter}{1st page}, {cited page} ({court page}{year}).

Party 1 v. Party 2, [year] volume reporter series page (jurisdiction and/or court)

Example: Securities and Exchange Commission v. Texas Gulf Sulphur Co., 401 F.2d 833, 848 (2d Cir. 1968).

Pending and Unreported Cases:

Use the following form:

{name}, {docket no.}, slip op. at {cited p.} ({court} {date and year}).


Party 1 v. Party 2, (day month year), juridical district docket number (jurisdiction and/or court)

Example: Topps Chewing Gum, Inc. v. Fleer Corp., No. 85-7356, slip op. at 5318 (2d Cir. Aug. 25, 1986).


Cite in the following form:
{state or country} Const. {subparts}.
Example: U.S. Const. art. I, 9, cl. 2.


Citation to a codification:
{name of act}, {title or volume} {codification} subdivision} ({year}).
Example: National Labor Relations Act, 29 U.S.C. ss. 151-169 (1982).

Citation to an original act:

{name of act}, {source} ({year of passage}), {codified at codification}.

Example: National Environmental Policy Act Pub. L. No. 91-190, Stat. 853 (1970), codified at 42 U.S.C. s. 4332 (1982).

Legislative Materials

For legislative materials other than those specified below, cite as follows:
{title}, {legislature}, {session page or section} ({date}).

Bills and Resolutions:

{title and/or bill no.}, xxth Cong., xxth Sess. ({Date introduced}) in {citation source, if any}.

Example: S.2404, 97th Cong., 2d Sess. (April 13, 1982) in 128 Con. Rec. 7091 (Apr. 20, 1982).

Committee or Subcommittee Reports
{Title of report}, {Sen. or H.R.} Rep. No. xx, xxth Sess. {page} ({date}).

Executive and Administrative Materials

As a general rule, cite by author (if appropriate), title, official source, page, and date, for both federal and state materials.

Rules of Practice

Court rules and rules of evidence or procedure are simply cited by name and number of the rule.


Artwork Guidelines

Artwork should be of good quality and clean, with clear lettering, sharp black lines, and sides trimmed straight. Photocopies are not acceptable. The scanner faithfully reproduces all smudges, crooked or broken lines, and stray marks. Tape, creases, and other surface irregularities may produce shadows that the scanner will render as black.

Electronic Artwork

PDF, JPEG, GIF and BMP graphics files are low-resolution images that are acceptable for the initial manuscript review stage, but these formats are unacceptable for final print reproduction. Final original artwork should be submitted as graphics files in 300-dpi resolution or higher in EPS, TIFF or TIF file formats. Do not embed final artwork graphics files in Word or WordPerfect documents.

Internet Graphics

Graphics downloaded from Internet web pages are unacceptable for print reproduction. These graphics are low-resolution images (usually 72 dpi) that are suitable for screen display but far below acceptable standards for print reproduction.

Artwork Created with Microsoft PowerPoint, MS Word, or WordPerfect

The graphics created in these programs are low-resolution images that are not suitable for professional reproduction. Graphics created using PowerPoint, Word, or WordPerfect are acceptable only if they are line images, with no gray, color, or shading, and only if they are printed from a high-quality laser printer (see Line Art below). Only hard copies of line art created with these programs will be accepted; do not submit artwork in electronic PowerPoint, Word, or WordPerfect files.

Cropping and Sizing

Your artwork will be cropped and sized for publication. If you want to be certain that a particular area of your image is excluded or included, please indicate where the image should be cropped.

Figures will be printed either in a single column or across two columns. Exceptionally wide figures will be placed broadside. Artwork is generally not enlarged, as the quality of the image may be compromised. If possible, figures should be submitted in the size at which they will be published.


Please be consistent with type (both font and size) within a figure. Since most figures are reduced, figures employing more than one font size may, after reduction, contain both text that is too small to read and text that is so large as to be awkward. After reduction, all text should be readable but not excessively large. Of course, some variation in the size of letters may be necessary to emphasize elements in a figure or to fit lettering in a limited space; however, please try to use no more than a 2-point variation in your type sizes.
Please use the same font type for all figures in your article; use standard fonts such as Times, Courier, Arial, Helvetica, or Symbol. Sans serif fonts such as Arial and Helvetica are ideal and should be used whenever possible.

If the figures in your article contain units of measurement, please label these units consistently. Make sure abbreviations are consistent with those used in the text and the legend.

Avoid placing labels over shaded areas of a figure. Best results are obtained from black lettering on a white background. If the area requiring a label contains shading, it is best to create a white box and place the black label within.

Figures consisting of more than one panel should include uppercase panel designations ("A," "B," "C," etc.). Whenever possible, include all panels of a figure on the same page.

Each chart or graph should incorporate a key to any symbols used. Please set the key inside the figure when possible.

Omit any extraneous information, such as page numbers, figure numbers, author names, or manuscript number, from the figure. Such information should be marked on the back of the figure, not included as part of the actual image. Figures themselves should not contain a title or text that is duplicated in the figure legend. Figure legends should be included on a separate page, with the manuscript.


If the artwork you are submitting has been published elsewhere or is otherwise copyrighted, we must have a letter of permission from the copyright holder in order to use the image. In addition, if the artwork is not your own, we will need information about its source.                   


Bar Graphs

Avoid the use of gray or color in bar graphs. Instead, please use solid black, solid white, and patterned (e.g., horizontally or diagonally striped) bars. If a bar graph must contain gray shading or color, please submit a high-resolution, glossy print. Laser printouts will be accepted only if the bar graph contains no gray shading or color.
Please refrain from submitting "three-dimensional" bar graphs unless there is a compelling reason for the information to be rendered in three dimensions. The information in most bar graphs can be adequately rendered in two dimensions, and making a bar graph three-dimensional only obfuscates the data.

Line Art 

Always submit sharp, laser printouts for line art. Dot matrix printouts are unacceptable. Line art is best reproduced when it is submitted as a crisp black-and-white image and contains no unnecessary gray shading. Gray areas scan unevenly, which often results in unwanted "moiré" patterns. If gray must be used in the figure, the figure must adhere to all requirements for halftone images (see Halftones, below).

Avoid thin lines, particularly in figures requiring considerable reduction. Do not use lines that are thinner than 2 points, and do not use the "hairline" width option that many computer programs offer.

If your image requires the use of many lines (as line graphs often do), please choose patterns that are easily distinguished from each other. Patterns with similar characteristics are hard to differentiate after reduction.


Halftones are any images that contain gray. Halftones must be submitted as high-resolution glossy prints, slides, or transparencies. When using gray, make sure to use shading with at least a 25% variation in gradation or it may become difficult to distinguish between different elements in your figure.

Two shades of gray that are separated by less than a 25% gradation may become very difficult to distinguish. B, Black-and-white fill patterns result in graphics that are sharper and easier for the reader to understand.

Photomicrographs should show only the most pertinent area of the material being studied. A micron bar or appropriate scale marking must appear on the figure.