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Maintenance, Inspection, Diagnostics, Testing, Troubleshooting, Refurbishment, Commissioning and Protective Systems for all Key Electrical Equipment

This seminar will provide a comprehensive understanding of all the maintenance, inspection, diagnostics, testing, troubleshooting, refurbishment, commissioning, and protective systems of all electrical equipment including: transformers, inverters, rectifiers, motors, variable frequency drives, uninterruptible power systems, generators, circuit breakers, fuses, and industrial batteries. It will cover in detail all the inspection methods and tests required to identify faults and deficiencies in electrical equipment, the repair techniques and available refurbishment methods, as well as the activities required to commission this equipment and will also cover all protective systems associated with this equipment.  The objective of the seminar is to maximize the efficiency, reliability, and longevity of this type of equipment by providing an understanding of the common problems and repair techniques, preventive and predictive maintenance.

This seminar is a MUST for anyone whose work involves inspecting, testing, maintaining or refurbishing electrical equipment because it covers the latest maintenance techniques, provides the necessary guidelines and rules that ensure the successful repair of electrical equipment mentioned above as well as cover in detail the maintenance specifications, advanced fault detection techniques, critical components and all modern repair and commissioning methods which allows for the increased reliability of this equipment and reduction of the maintenance costs.

The following information will be provided for all electrical equipment:

  • Procedures for inspection, diagnostics, troubleshooting, and testing
  • Maintenance activities and specifications
  • Commissioning activities and specifications
  • Repair and refurbishment techniques
  • Enclosures and Sealing Arrangements
  • Codes and Standards
  • Common Operational Problems and critical components
  • All protective systems

Who Should Attend

  • Engineers of all disciplines
  • Managers
  • Technicians
  • Maintenance personnel
  • Other technical individuals (this seminar is suitable for individuals who do not have an electrical background)

What You Will Learn

  • A detailed understanding of the inspection required for all types of electrical equipment
  • The required diagnostic techniques including for critical components of electrical equipment.
  • Understand in detail the tests required for the various types of electrical equipment
  • Determine all the maintenance and troubleshooting activities required to minimize electrical equipment downtime and operating cost.
  • A detailed understanding of the various methods used to repair and refurbish all electrical equipment.
  • The various methods used to maximize the efficiency, reliability, and longevity of all types of electrical equipment.
  • The various types of enclosures and sealing arrangements used for electrical equipment.
  • Understand all the commissioning requirements for electrical equipment.
  • The codes and standards applicable for electrical equipment.
  • Electrical equipment causes and modes of failure.
  • A detailed understanding of all protective systems required for different types of electrical equipment.


The instructor relies on a highly interactive training method to enhance the learning process. This method ensures that all participants gain a complete understanding of all the topics covered. The training environment is highly stimulating, challenging, and effective because participants will learn by case studies which will allow them to apply the material taught to their own organization.

You Will Receive

Each participant will receive a copy of the following materials written by the instructor:

  • The relevant material of the “ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT HANDBOOK” published by McGraw-Hill in 2003
  • Electrical Equipment inspection, diagnostics, testing, troubleshooting, maintenance, refurbishment, commissioning and protective systems Manual

Program Outline

Day 1 - Transformer Winding Transpositions, Impulse Strength, Transformer Components, Transformer Oil Testing, Dissolved Gas Analysis, Gas Detector Relays, Transformer Tests, Type Tests, Special Tests, Harmonics, Transformer Protection

  • Transformer windings, transpositions, continuously-transposed strip, impulse strength, thermal considerations, performance under short-circuit
  • Transformer components and maintenance, classification of transformers, dry transformers, oil-immersed transformers
  • Components of a power transformer, core, windings, nitrogen demand system, conservative tank with air cell, current transformers, bushings, insulation
  • Tap changers, Tapchanger mechanisms, single-compartment tapchangers, in-tank tapchangers, off-circuit tapchangers, tanks, connections and auxiliary plant
  • Oil preservation equipment, conservators, bushing connections, SF6 connections, cable box connections, tank-mounted coolers, separate cooler banks, water cooling, cooler control, layout of transformer compounds, galvanic anode, impressed current cathodic protection system
  • Types and features of insulation, reasons for deterioration, forces, cause of transformer failure
  • Transformer oil, testing transformer oil, causes of deterioration, neutralization number test, interfacial tension test, Myers index number, transformer oil classification system, methods of dealing with bad oil, gas-in-oil
  • Dissolved Gas Analysis, advanced detection of incipient fault conditions leading to all failure modes, oil collection, gas extraction, standards and guidelines governing dissolved gas analysis, gases in oil, transformer gas separation by gas chromatography, gas solubility coefficients in oil, partitioning, diagnosis, new guidelines for interpretation of Dissolved Gas Analysis in oil-filled transformers, basic gas ratio, indication/fault gas, fault types
  • Gas relay and collection systems, relief devices, interconnection with the grid
  • Transformer Quality Assurance, transformer testing during manufacture, transformer processing and dry-out, Final testing
  • Transformer Tests, Measurements, Calculations, and Evaluation Criteria
  • Transformer Routine Tests, Type Tests, and Special Tests
  • Routine Tests: measurement of winding resistance, measurement of voltage ratio and check of polarity and phase displacement, measurement of short-circuit impedance and load loss, measurement of no-load loss and current, dielectric tests, separate source AC withstand voltage test, induced ac voltage test, partial discharge measurement, tests on on-load tap-changers, open-circuit and short-circuit tests
  • Type Tests: temperature-rise test, lightning-impulse tests
  • Special Tests: switching impulse voltage test, measurement of dissipation factor (tan δ) and capacitance, measurement of zero sequence impedance(s), Determination of sound level, measurement of harmonics of the no-load current, measurement of insulation resistance, short-circuit withstand test, condensation test, condensation and humidity penetration test, low temperature test, heating-shock test at -5°C, heating-shock test at -25°C
  • Transformer protection, transformer protection overview, transformer failures
  • Differential characteristic, inrush inhibit during transformer energization, sensitive ground fault protection to limit transformer damage, overflux protection
  • Winding hot-spot temperature protection
  • Application capabilities, phase shift transformers, split-phase autotransformer
  • Typical applications of transformer protection relays 

Day 2 - Maintenance of Motors, Rectifiers, and Pulse-Width Modulation Inverters, Variable Speed Drives, Uninterruptible Power Systems, Maintenance of Industrial Batteries

  • Characteristics of Motors, enclosures and cooling methods, failures in three-phase stator windings, predictive maintenance, motor troubleshooting, diagnostic testing of motors, repair and refurbishment of ac induction motors   
  • Power Electronics components, rectifier circuits, filtering rectifier output, pulse circuits, voltage variation by ac phase control, inverters, pulse-width modulation (PWM) inverters
  • Variable speed (frequency) drives, principles of ac variable speed drives, inverters, insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT’s), pulse-width modulated inverters, input power converter (rectifier), output IGBT inverter, magnetic breaking, regeneration, transients, harmonics, power factor and failures, common failure modes, thyristor failures and testing, IGBT switching transients, cabling details for ac drives, motor bearing currents, selection criteria for variable speed drives, maintenance, common failure modes, motor application guidelines
  • Uninterruptible power systems (UPSs), UPS operation, standards, voltage regulation, harmonic distortion, advanced UPS design, efficiency, input power converter, inverter, battery system, remote UPS monitoring, testing of UPS, commissioning of UPS, UPS maintenance, battery maintenance, UPS sizing, battery selection, space vector modulation technology, electromagnetic and radio frequency interference
  • Maintenance of industrial batteries, discharge voltage characteristics, battery life, battery types, lead-acid batteries, installation and operation, placing the battery in service, charging the battery, maintenance, prevention of over-discharging, determination of battery condition, troubleshooting, repairs and maintenance of batteries   

Day 3 - Generator Surveillance and Testing, Advanced Methods for Preventing Partial Discharge, Generator Inspection and Maintenance, Generator Rotor Reliability and Life Expectancy, Generator Upgrades and Rewinds, Double Feed Generators (used for wind turbines), Power Station Electrical Systems and Design Requirements, Power Station Protective Systems, Frequently Asked Questions  

  • Inspection practices and methodology, site preparation, foreign material exclusion, experience and training, safety procedures – electrical clearances, inspection frequency, generator accessibility, inspection tools, inspection forms
  • Generator surveillance and testing, generator operational checks (surveillance and monitoring), generator diagnostic testing, insulation resistance and polarization index, dc hipot test, ac tests for stator windings, synchronous machine rotor windings, partial discharge tests, mechanical tests
  • Advanced methods for protecting the generator stator bars from partial discharge, causes of partial discharge, controlling partial discharge using antimony-doped tin oxide filler material, advanced methods for Preventing partial discharge in generator stator bars, modern US patents for preventing partial discharge
  • Generator systems, condition monitoring, operation limitations, fault conditions
  • Generator inspection and maintenance, on-load maintenance and monitoring, off-load maintenance, generator testing
  • Generator operational problems, and refurbishment options, typical generator operational problems
  • Generator rotor reliability and life expectancy, generator rotor refurbishment, generator rotor modifications, upgrades, and uprates
  • Generator upgrades and rewinds, rewinding for increased reliability, rewinding for increased output or efficiency, stator windings, rotor windings, impact on other components
  • Stator windings, slot support system, end winding support, asphalt conversions, emergency situations, complete rewind, partial rewind, repair of bars, stator winding insulation, stator winding quality
  • Field rewinds, overall design approach, component design, additional field considerations, field coil slot wedges, retaining rings, collector rings and bore copper, field winding quality, spare rotor
  • Other generator equipment and auxiliaries, excitation equipment, removable cartridge brush holders, coolers, control cabinets, babbitted hydrogen seals, generator gas monitoring system and tagging compounds, air gap flux probe, shaft voltage monitor
  • Double-feed generators, system configuration, equivalent circuit for the brushless double-fed machine, parameter extraction, generator operation, converter rating, machine control, maintenance
  • Bearings and Lubrication, Types of bearings, ball and roller bearings, thrust bearings, lubrication, viscosity of lubricants, greases, VI improved oils
  • Used oil analysis, test description and significance, visual and sensory inspection, chemical and physical tests
  • Vibration analysis, resonance, vibration instrumentation, vibration analysis, vibration causes, vibration severity
  • Power station electrical systems, and design requirements, system requirements, electrical system description, system performance, unit start-up, synchronization,  shutdown and power trip, power plant outages and faults, uninterruptible power supply systems, dc systems
  • Power station protective systems, design criteria, generator protection, dc tripping systems
  • Frequently asked questions