Bill Freedman Plant Collection

The Bill Freedman Plant Collection is a garden part of the Dalhousie Outdoor Ecolab project. The garden includes over 60 species of plants, including several rare and endangered species. The garden provides students, faculty and community with an opportunity to learn in an outdoor classroom, where people can analyze and observe native and non-native plants and rocks from Nova Scotia. The garden will complement science-based lectures, traditional labs, and existing field courses that would traditionally bring students off campus.

The garden is located in a wooded area behind Sherriff Hall, the Life Sciences Centre and the Steele Ocean Sciences Building.


Balsam fir (Abies balsamea)

Abies balsamea also known as balsam fir, is a North American fir, native to most of eastern and central Canada (Newfoundland west to central British Columbia) and the northeastern United States (Minnesota east to Maine, and south in the Appalachian Mountains to West Virginia)

Photo: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service  

Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus)

Vaccinium myrtillus is a species of shrub with edible fruit of blue color, commonly called "bilberry", "wimberry", "whortleberry", or European blueberry. It has much in common with the American blueberry (Vaccinium cyanococcus). It is more precisely called common bilberry or blue whortleberry, to distinguish it from other Vaccinium relatives.

Black huckleberry (Vaccinium membranaceum)

Vaccinium membranaceum is a species within the group of Vaccinium commonly referred to as huckleberry. This particular species is known by the common names thinleaf huckleberry, tall huckleberry, big huckleberry, mountain huckleberry, square-twig blueberry, and (ambiguously) as "black huckleberry."

Black sedge (Carex nigra)

Carex nigra also known as black sedge, is a perennial species of plants in the family Cyperaceae native to wetlands of Europe, western Asia, NW Africa and Eastern North America. Common names include common sedge, black sedge or smooth black sedge. The eastern limit of its range reaches central Siberia, Turkey and probably Caucasus.

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis)

Sanguinaria canadensis, also known as bloodroot, is a perennial, herbaceous flowering plant native to eastern North America. It is the only species in the genus Sanguinaria, included in the family Papaveraceae, and most closely related to Eomecon of eastern Asia.

Blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides)

Caulophyllum thalictroides, also known asthe blue cohosh, a species of Caulophyllum (family Berberidaceae), also called squaw root or papoose root, is a flowering plant in the Berberidaceae (barberry) family. It is a medium-tall perennial with blue berry-like fruits and bluish-green foliage.


Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum)

Pteridium aquilinum (bracken, brake or common bracken), also known as eagle fern, and Eastern brakenfern, is a species of fern occurring in temperate and subtropical regions in both hemispheres. The extreme lightness of its spores has led to its global distribution.

Bronze holly fern (Polystichum braunii)

Polystichum braunii also know as Bronze holly fern, is a clumping native fern, with thick, dark green fronds. Stalks or stems are covered in golden-brown scales that contrast nicely against the leaflets. Dense, upright and arching habit, the fronds arising from a single point, giving a formal appearance. Easy and reliable. Evergreen in milder winter regions.

Canadian yew (Taxus canadensis)

Taxus canadensis, the Canada yew or Canadian yew, is a conifer native to central and eastern North America, thriving in swampy woods, ravines, riverbanks and on lake shores. Locally called simply "yew," this species is also referred to as American yew or ground-hemlock.

Photo by: Rob Routledge

Christmas fern (Polystichum acrostichoides)

Polystichum acrostichoides, commonly denominated Christmas fern, is a perennial, evergreen fern native to eastern North America, from Nova Scotia, Canada west to Minnesota and south to Florida and eastern Texas. It is naturalized in Europe. It is one of the commonest ferns in eastern North America, being found in moist and shady habitats in woodlands, rocky slopes, and stream banks. The common name derives from the evergreen fronds which are often still green at Christmas in December.

Photo by: Derek Ramsey (2007)

Cinnamon fern (Osmunda cinnamomea)

Osmunda cinnamomea is genus of leptosporangiate ferns in the family Osmundaceae with one accepted species, Osmundastrum cinnamomeum, the cinnamon fern. It is native to the Americas and eastern Asia, growing in swamps, bogs and moist woodlands.

Photo by: Derek Ramsey (2006)

Common snake root (Sanicula gregaria/anemone)

Eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis)

Thuja occidentalis, also known as eastern white cedar, is an evergreen coniferous tree, in the cypress family Cupressaceae, which is native to eastern Canada and much of the north, central and upper Northeastern United States, but widely cultivated as an ornamental plant. The species was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753, and the binomial name remains current.

Photo by: United States Department of Agriculture

Golden rod (Solidago flexicaulis)

Solidago flexicaulis, also known as Golden rod, is a North American species of herbaceous perennial plants in the sunflower family. It is native to the eastern and central parts of the United States and Canada, from Nova Scotia west to Ontario and the Dakotas, and south as far as Alabama and Louisiana. It grows in a variety of habitats including mesic upland forests, well drained floodplain forests, seepage swamp hummocks, and rocky woodlands.

Photo by: Robert H. Mohlenbroc

Goldie's fern (Dryopteris goldiana)

Dryopteris goldieana, also known as Goldie's fern, or giant wood fern is a fern native to the eastern United States and adjacent areas of Canada, from New Brunswick to Ontario and Georgia.

Photo by: Wasp32 (2006)

Gooseberry (Ribes rubrum)

Ribes rubrum, also known as gooseberry, is native to Europe, the Caucasus and northern Africa.The species is also sparingly naturalized in scattered locations in North America. Gooseberry bushes produce an edible fruit and are grown on both a commercial and domestic basis.   

Hayscented Fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula)

Dennstaedtia punctilobula, also known as the hayscented fern or hay-scented fern, is a species of fern native to eastern North America, from Newfoundland west to Wisconsin and Arkansas, and south in the Appalachian Mountains to northern Alabama; it is most abundant in the east of its range, with only scattered populations in the west.

Intermediate wood fern (Dryopteris)

Dryopteris intermedia, also known as the intermediate wood fern or evergreen wood fern, is an evergreen eastern North American species also occasionally found in Europe. It is a diploid species, and is the parent of several species of hybrid origin, including Dryopteris carthusiana.

Jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum )

Arisaema triphyllum also known as jack-in-the-pulpit, is a herbaceous perennial plant growing from a corm. It is a highly variable species typically growing 30–65 centimetres (12–26 in) in height with three-parted leaves and flowers contained in a spadix that is covered by a hood. It is native to eastern North America, occurring in moist woodlands and thickets from Nova Scotia west to Minnesota, and south to southern Florida and Texas.

Lily-of-the-valley (Convallaria majalis)

Convallaria majalis also known as Lily of the Valley (European), sometimes written lily-of-the-valley, is a sweetly scented, highly poisonous woodland flowering plant that is native throughout the cool temperate Northern Hemisphere in Asia and Europe. Other names include May bells, Our Lady's tears, and Mary's tears. Its French name, muguet, sometimes appears in the names of perfumes imitating the flower's scent.

Lion's paw (Prenanthes trifoliolata)

Prenanthes trifoliolata also known as Lion’s Paw prefers dry, open sites, borders of woods and streams, and in clearings and thickets. The leaves vary greatly in shape and size but are usually divided into three distinct lobes. Stout stalks affix the leaves to the waxy, reddish stem. Eight to twelve creamy white, bell-like flowers nod from the top of a flower stem which varies in height from 15 to 150 cm. Waxy pale green or pinkish bracts cover the petals and contribute towards the tubular shape of the upper portion of the bell-shaped flower.

Meadowsweet (Spiraea alba)

Spiraea alba, also known as meadowsweet, is native to the wet soils of the Allegheny Mountains and other portions of eastern North America., but is currently endangered in the state of Missouri. It is naturalized in other parts of the world.

Narrowleaf meadowsweet shrubs often reach 8 feet in height with a spread of 3–4 feet. This species is often the most conspicuous part of the vegetation in its habitat, taking up large areas of ground. Its leaves are glossy yellow-green, oblong or lance-shaped, and toothed on the edges, and its twigs are tough and yellowish brown. Fall foliage is golden yellow. The white and sometimes pink fragrant flowers grow in spikelike clusters at the ends of the branches, blooming from early summer through September. The brown fruit, which persists after flowering, is a distinctive feature of all Spiraea.

Northern bush honeysuckle (Diervilla lonicera)

Diervilla lonicera, also known as northern bush honeysuckle, is a native deciduous shrub found in the northeastern United States and Canada. Its specific epithet, lonicera (the Latin term for ‘honeysuckle’) refers to its similarity in appearance to the true honeysuckles, genus Lonicera.

Northern lady fern (Athyrium felix-femina)

Athyrium felix-femina, the lady fern or common lady-fern, is a large, feathery species of fern native throughout most of the temperate Northern Hemisphere, where it is often abundant (one of the more common ferns) in damp, shady woodland environments and is often grown for decoration.

Ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris)

Matteuccia struthiopteris also known as ostrich fern, is a crown-forming, colony-forming plant, occurring in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in central and northern Europe, northern Asia, and northern North America.The species epithet struthiopteris comes from Ancient Greek words, struthio meaning ostrich and pterion meaning wing.



Red osier dogwood (Cornus sericea)

Cornus sericea, also known as red osier/red-osier dogwood, is a species of flowering plant in the family Cornaceae, native throughout northern and western North America from Alaska east to Newfoundland, south to Durango and Nuevo León in the west, and Illinois and Virginia in the east. Other names include red willow, redstem dogwood, redtwig dogwood, red-rood, American dogwood, creek dogwood, and western dogwood.

Rhodora (Rhododendron canadense)

Rhododendron canadense, also known as the rhodora, is a deciduous flowering shrub that is native to northeastern North America.

Sarsaparilla (Aralia racemosa)

Aralia racemosa, also known as Sarsaparilla, is an ornamental plant in the Araliaceae family native to the United States and Canada. It is a herbaceous plant, about one to two meters tall, which grows in shady areas. Its native range includes most of the eastern United States.

Sedge (Caryx plantaginea)

Caryx plantaginea, also known as sedge is a perennial herb of the sedge family with the common name seersucker sedge or plaintainleaf sedge, which grows up to 0.9 metres (2 ft 11 in) tall. It grows in meadows and woods from Maine to Georgia.

Sedge (Caryx sp.)

Sedge (novaeangliae)

Sheep laurel (Kalmia angustifolia)

Kalmia angustifolia, also known as Sheep Laurel a flowering shrub in the family Ericaceae. It is distributed in eastern North America from Ontario and Quebec south to Virginia. It grows commonly in dry habitats in the boreal forest, and may become dominant over large areas after fire or logging. Like many plant species of infertile habitats it has evergreen leaves and mycorrhizal associations with fungi. It is also found in drier area of peat bogs.

Solomon's seal (Maianthemum stellatum)

Maianthemum stellatum also known as Solomon's seal,  is a species of flowering plant, native across North America generally from Alaska to California to North Carolina to Newfoundland, plus northern Mexico. It has been found in every Canadian province and territory except Nunavut, and from every US state except Hawaii and the states of the Southeast. It has little white buds in the spring, followed by delicate starry flowers, then green-and-black striped berries, and finally deep red berries in the fall.

Starflower (Trientalis borealis)

Trientalis borealis, also known as the starflower, is a North American woodland perennial that blooms between May and June. Starflowers are creeping rhizomes with 8 inch (20 cm) vertical stalks. Each stalk has a whorl of 5-9 lanceolate leaves at its tip, with one or two white flowers on smaller stalks extending from the center of the whorl. The flowers are about 0.5 inches (11 mm) across and consist of five to nine petals that form a star-like shape.

Trientalis borealis is listed as endangered.

Striped maple (Acer pensylvanicum)

Acer pensylvanicum also known as striped maple, is a small North American species of maple. It is a small deciduous tree growing to 5–10 meters (16–33 ft) tall, with a trunk up to 20 cm (8 in) in diameter. The young bark is striped with green and white, and when a little older, brown. The leaves are broad and soft, 8–15 cm (3–6 in) long and 6–12 cm (2.5–4.5 in) broad, with three shallow forward-pointing lobes.

Trout lily (Erythronium americanum)

Erythronium americanum  also known as trout lily, is a species of perennial, colony forming, spring ephemeral flower native to North America and dwelling in woodland habitats. Within its range it is a very common and widespread species, especially in eastern North America.The common name "trout lily," refers to the appearance of its gray-green leaves mottled with brown or gray, which allegedly resemble the coloring of brook trout. The range is from Labrador south to Georgia, west to Mississippi, and north to Minnesota.

Virginia rose (Rosa virginiana)

Rosa virginiana, also known as commonly known as the Virginia rose, common wild rose or prairie rose, is a woody perennial in the rose family native to eastern North America, where it is the most common wild rose. It is deciduous, forming a suckering shrub up to 2 metres in height, though often less. The stems are covered in numerous hooked prickles. The leaves are pinnate, usually with between 7 and 9 glossy leaflets. The pink flowers are borne singly or in small clusters and appear over a long period in midsummer. The fruits are small, round and bright red.

White pine (Pinus strobus)

Pinus strobus, also known as white pine, is a large pine native to eastern North America. It occurs from Newfoundland, Canada west through the Great Lakes region to southeastern Manitoba and Minnesota, United States, and south along the Appalachian Mountains and upper Piedmont to northernmost Georgia and perhaps very rarely in some of the higher elevations in northeastern Alabama.

White snakeroot (Ageratina altissima)

Ageratina altissima, also known as white snakeroot, is a poisonous perennial herb in the family Asteraceae, native to eastern and central North America. An older binomial name for this species is Eupatorium rugosum, but the genus Eupatorium has undergone taxonomic revision by botanists, and a number of the species that were once included in it have been moved to other genera. Plants are upright or sometimes ascending, growing to 1.5 m tall, producing single or multi-stemmed clumps. They are found in woods and brush thickets where they bloom mid to late summer or fall. The flowers are a clean white color and after blooming, small seeds with fluffy white tails are released to blow in the wind.

White spruce (Picea glauca)

Picea glauca, also known as the white spruce, is a species of spruce native to the northern temperate and boreal forests in North America. Picea glauca was originally native from central Alaska all through the east, across southern/central Canada to the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland. It now has become naturalized southward into the far northern United States border states like Montana, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Vermont, New Hampshire and Maine; there is also an isolated population in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. It is also known as Canadian spruce, skunk spruce, cat spruce, Black Hills spruce, western white spruce, Alberta white spruce, and Porsild spruce.

White trillium (Trillium grandiflorum)

Trillium grandiflorum, also known as the white trillium, is a species of flowering plant in the family Melanthiaceae. A monocotyledonous, herbaceous perennial, it is native to eastern North America, from northern Quebec to the southern parts of the United States through the Appalachian Mountains into northernmost Georgia and west to Minnesota. It also thrives on Vancouver Island in British Columbia. There are also several isolated populations in Nova Scotia and Iowa

Wild ginger (Asarum candense)

Asarum canadense, also known as Canada wild ginger, is a herbaceous, perennial plant which forms dense colonies in the understory of deciduous forest throughout its native range in eastern North America, from the Great Plains east to the Atlantic Coast, and from southeastern Canada south to around the Fall Line in the southeastern United States.

Wild lily-of-the-valley (Maianthemum canadense)

Maianthemum canadense also knowns as the Canadian lily-of-the-valley or the wild lily-of-the-valley, is a dominant understory perennial flowering plant, native to the sub-boreal conifer forests in Canada and the northern United States, from Yukon and British Columbia east to Newfoundland and south to Nebraska and Pennsylvania, and also in the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia. It can be found growing under both evergreen and deciduous trees. It grows to 10–25 cm tall, and has 1–3 leaves, with clusters of 12–25 starry shaped, white flowers held above the leaves.

Wild rose (Rosa blanda)

Rosa blanda, also known as the wild rose, or is a species of rose native to North America. Among roses, it is closest to come to a "thornless" rose, with just a few thorns at the base. The meadow rose occurs as a colony-forming shrub growing to 1 m (3.3 ft) high, naturally in prairies and meadows. The roses are quite variable, the characteristics such as leaf tip number of prickles and glandular hairs usually do not always remain constant, thus it is often confused with Rosa arkansana or Rosa carolina, the two other prairie rose species.

Wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis)

Aralia nudicaulis, also known as the wild sarsaparilla, is a flowering plant of northern and eastern North America which reaches a height of 30–60 cm (12–24 in) with creeping underground stems. In the spring the underground stems produce compound leaves that are large and finely toothed. Tiny white flowers, typically in three, globe-shaped clusters 4–5 cm (1.6–2.0 in) wide, are produced on tall scapes that grow about the same height as the leaves. These bloom from May to July and develop into purple-black edible berries. The leaves go dormant in summer before the fruits ripen. The berries taste a little spicy and sweet.

Wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens)

Gaultheria procumbens, also knows as wintergreen, is a species of Gaultheria native to northeastern North America from Newfoundland west to southeastern Manitoba, and south to Alabama. It is a member of the Ericaceae (heath family).

Wood fern (Dryopteris campyloptera)

Dryopteris campyloptera, also known as the wood fern, is a large American fern of higher elevations and latitudes. It was formerly known as Dryopteris spinulosa var. americana. This species may only be found above 3800 feet elevation.

Wrinkleleaf (Solidago rugosa)

Solidago rugosa, also known as wrinkleleaf, is a species of flowering plant in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). It is native to North American, where it is widespread across eastern and central Canada (from Newfoundland to Ontario) and the eastern and central United States (Maine west as far as Wisconsin and Iowa, south to Florida and Texas). It is usually found in wet to mesic habitats.

Yellow lady's-slipper (Cypripedium calceolus)

Cypripedium calceolus, also known as the yellow lady's-slipper, and the type species of the genus Cypripedium. It is typically found in open woodland on moist calcareous soils. In continental Europe it is also found growing in the decomposed humus of semi-shaded woodland cover on limestone. It has declined over much of the European part of its range, and as a result is legally protected in a number of countries.